Glyceria

Glyceria R. Brown

Glyceria is a relatively small genus of ca. 35 species of wet areas. Most are confined to the northern hemisphere. Four species are native in Belgium: Glyceria declinata Bréb., G. fluitans (L.) R. Brown, G. maxima (Hartm.) Holmberg and G. notata Chevall. (Lambinon & al. 2004).

Some additional North American species have become naturalised in various parts of Europe in the past decades. They are likely to occur in Belgium as well. Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. (syn.: G. michauxii Kunth, G. nervata (Willd.) Trin.) is the most widespread and is naturalised and spreading in numerous European countries (see for instance Holub 1980 but also Haeupler 1971, Carlsson 1976, Raabe 1986, Babczynska-Sendek & Sendek 1989, Ganzert & Walentowski 1989, Melzer & Wagner 1991, Gerstberger 1994, Korneck & Schnittler 1994, Georges 2002, Dančák 2002, Kumm 2002, Felzines & Loiseau 2002, Bizot & Parent 2005, Keil 2005, Piwowarski & Bartoszek 2012, etc.). It mostly resembles Glyceria canadensis (both belong with section Striatae G.L. Church) but is characterised by smaller spikelets (2-4 mm long, 1,3-2,5 mm wide), smaller lemmas (1,4-2 mm long), smaller lower glumes (0,4-0,9 mm long), etc. It is usually found in damp woodlands (clearings, by paths,…). In general habit it more looks like Poa than Glyceria and, as a consequence, might pass unrecorded. Glyceria striata occurs in several localities in northern France (near Béthune and Maubeuge), relatively close to the Belgian frontiers (see also Georges 2002). A second North American species, Glyceria grandis S. Watson ex A. Gray, is more locally naturalised, especially in Scandinavia (Niordson 1989, Kääntönen 1991, Kurtto 1996b) and more recently also in France (Portal & Bergeron 2004) and the British Isles (Ellis 2001). It is most closely related to native Glyceria maxima and has darker and smaller spikelets but is otherwise very similar. A recently described new European subspecies of Glyceria maxima (subsp. micrantha Scholz; see Scholz 2002), hardly differs from the American G. grandis and further blurs the specific boundaries between both species.

  • Spikelets oblong to linear in outline, at least twice as long as wide. Lemma always prominently veined. Palea hyaline, at most as wide as lemma. Anthers 3 (native) === Glyceria declinata, G. fluitans, G. maxima and G. notata
  • Spikelets obovate to oblong, 4-6 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, almost as wide as long. Lemma not prominently veined. Palea becoming indurate, wider than lemma. Anthers 2 === 1. Glyceria canadensis

 


Literature:

Babczynska-Sendek B. & Sendek A. (1989) Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchcock - nowy gatunek we florze Polski. Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 34: 75-80.

Barkworth M.E. & Anderton L.K. (2007) Glyceria. In: Barkworth M.E. & al. (eds.), Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 24: 68-88. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford.

Bizot A. & Parent G.H. (2005) Trois plantes américaines du Nord-Est de la France: 1. Carex vulpinoidea Michx., 2. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchcock, 3. Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ard. 94: 24-34.

Carlsson R. (1976) Glyceria striata funnen i Sverige. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 70: 57-60.

Conert H.J. (ed.) (1998) Gustav Hegi Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Band I, Teil 3 Poaceae (3.Auflage). Parey Buchverlag, Berlin: XXVII + 898 p.

Dančák M. (2002) Glyceria striata – a new alien grass species in the flora of the Czech Republic. Preslia 74: 281-289.

Ellis G. (2001) Alien records. BSBI News 86: 47-48.

Felzines J.-C. & Loiseau J.-E. (2002) Cyperus reflexus Vahl et Glyceria striatus (Lam.) A.S. Hitch., deux adventices en cours de naturalisation dans la vallée de la Dordogne moyenne. Monde Pl. 478: 9-11.

Ganzert C. & Walentowski H. (1989) Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. – eine neue Graminee in der Flora Bayerns. Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 60: 191-194.

Georges N. (2002) Glyceria striata (Lamarck) A. Hitchcock, une nouvelle poacée pour la flore de Lorraine. Monde Pl. 477: 15-18.

Gerstberger P. (1994) Die Neophyten Glyceria striata und Scirpus atrovirens im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge bei Oberwinter. Decheniana 147: 44-48.

Haeupler H. (1971) Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. - ein Neubürger in Deutschlands Gramineenflora. Gött. Florist. Rundbr. 5: 63-68.

Holub J. (1980) Glyceria. In: Tutin T.G. & al. (eds.), Flora Europaea, vol. 5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 180-181.

Kääntönen M. (1991) Glyceria grandis Juupajoella (EH) – uusi laji Suomelle. Lutukka 7: 130-132.

Keil P. (2005) Ein Vorkommen von Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. in Wuppertal-Dornap. Natur und Heimat 65: 61-63.

Korneck D. & Schnittler M. (1994) Glyceria striata und Scirpus atrovirens im Rheinland. Flor. Rundbr. 28: 29-36.

Kumm V. (2002) Ein Vorkommen von Glyceria striata im Springbruch bei Potsdam. Verh. Bot. Ver. Berlin Brandenburg 135: 11-16.

Kurtto A. (1996b) Suomen sorsimoiden (Glyceria) määrityskaava. Lutukka 12: 125-126.

Lambinon J., Delvosalle L., Duvigneaud J. (avec coll. Geerinck D., Lebeau J., Schumacker R. & Vannerom H. (2004) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes). Cinquième édition. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise: CXXX + 1167 p.

Lid J. & Lid T.L. (1994) Norsk Flora, 6th ed.: LXXIII + 1014 p. Det Norske Samlaget, Oslo.

Melzer H. & Wagner S. (1991) Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc., das gestreifte Schwadengras – neu für Oberösterreich. Linzer biol. Beitr. 23: 251-255.

Mitchell J. (2007) Glyceria canadensis in Dumbarton (v.c. 99). BSBI News 104: 36.

Niordson N. (1989) Kvarngröe, Glyceria grandis, funnet i Småland och Halland. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 83: 357-360.

Piwowarski B. & Bartoszek W. (2012) The occurrence of Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. in Europe and the new localities of the species in Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 81(2): 87-92. [available online at: https://pbsociety.org.pl/journals/index.php/asbp/article/view/asbp.2012.004]

Portal R. (2014) Glyceria, Puccinellia, Pseudosclerochloa. France, pays voisins et Afrique du Nord. Vals-près-Le Puy: 149 p.

Portal R. & Bergeron G. (2004) Deux graminées nouvelles pour la France. Glyceria grandis S. Watson ex A. Gray 1890; Jarava brachychaeta (Gordon) Penail. 2002. Monde Pl. 483: 12-14.

Raabe U. (1986) Der Gestreifte Schwaden, Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchcock, bei Bad Rothenfelde, Kreis Osnabrück. Flor. Rundbr. 19(2): 85-87.

Saintenoy-Simon J. (1997) Excursion dans la région de Waimes et de Bütgenbach, le 14 septembre 1996. Adoxa 17: 19-21.

Scholz H. (2002) Eine neue Unterart der Glyceria maxima und Bemerkungen zu G. grandis (Poaceae). Verh. Bot. Ver. Berlin Brandenburg 135: 5-9.

Tsvelev N.N. (2006) Synopsis of the mannagrass genus, Glyceria (Poaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 91(2): 255-276 [in Russian; a translated English version is available at: http://herbarium.usu.edu/translate/GlyceriaTsvelev.htm].

Verloove F. (2002) Ingeburgerde plantensoorten in Vlaanderen. Mededeling van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud n° 20: 227 p.

Whipple I.G., Barkworth M.E. & Bushman B.S. (2007) Molecular insights into the taxonomy of Glyceria (Poaceae: Meliceae) in North America. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 551-557.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith