Phytolacca

Phytolacca L.

Literature: Walter (1909), Ludwig (1957), Nowicke (1968), Herrmann & Herrmann (1976), Clement (1982), Ghosh & Sikdar (1983), Terpo & Balint (1985), King (1989), Clement (1998), Landolt (2001), Dequan & Larsen (2003), Nienaber & Thieret (2003), Lambinon & al. (2004), van der Meijden (2005).

Phytolacca, as currently understood, is a genus of ca. 25 species. Most are native in warm-temperate and (sub-) tropical regions of the Americas and eastern Asia. None are native in Belgium. Several species of Phytolacca are cultivated as ornamentals.

Species delimitation in Phytolacca is controversial. The most recent monographic study of the genus dates back to 1909 (Walter 1909). Especially the Asian representatives – most popular in cultivation – are poorly understood and require further research.

1. Inflorescence erect at maturity. Relatively small plant, usually not exceeding 100 cm. Fruit with (6-)7-8(-9) carpels, (almost) free in fruit. Mature leaves broad, ca. 35 x 19 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic, abruptly acute at apex === Phytolacca acinosa

1. Inflorescence pendent at maturity. Robust plant, up to 300 cm. Fruit with 10 carpels, basally connate (ca. for about ½ their length). Mature leaves narrower, ca. 30 x 12 cm, lanceolate to elliptic, tapered at apex === Phytolacca americana


Literature

Adolphi K. (1995) Neophytische Kultur- und Anbaupflanzen als Kulturflüchtlinge des Rheinlandes. Nardus 2: 272 p.

Balogh L. (2005) Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte Magyarországon. Flora Pannonica 3: 135-161.

Caulkins D.B. & Wyatt R. (1990) Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117(4): 357-367.

Clement E.J. (1982) Pokeweeds (Phytolacca ssp.) in Britain. BSBI News 32: 22-23.

Clement E.J. (1998) Phytolacca. In: Rich T.C.G. & Jermy A.C. (eds.), Plant crib: 79. BSBI, London.

Dequan L. & Larsen K. (2003) Phytolaccaceae. In: Wu Z.Y. & al. (eds.), Flora of China, vol. 5. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis: 435-436.

Dieu J.-M., Lambinon J. & Rousselle J. (1997) Quatre adventices sur les trottoirs de la ville de Liège: Catapodium marinum, Diplotaxis muralis, Elsholtzia ciliata et Phytolacca esculenta. Nat. Mosana 50(1): 17-18.

Ghosh R.B. & Sikdar J.K. (1983) A revision of the Indian Phytolaccaceae (sensu lato). J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4(1): 153-163.

Herrmann M. & Herrmann E. (1976) Phytolacca americana L. als Neophyt in Stadt und Kreisgebiet von Naumburg (Saale). Mitt. Flor. Kart. Halle 2(2): 57-60.

King C.J. (1989) Phytolacca. In: Walters S.M. & al. (eds.), The European Garden Flora, vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 130-131.

Lambinon J., Delvosalle L., Duvigneaud J. (avec coll. Geerinck D., Lebeau J., Schumacker R. & Vannerom H. (2004) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes). Cinquième édition. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise: CXXX + 1167 p.

Landolt E. (2001) Flora der Stadt Zürich. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel: 1421 p.

Ludwig W. (1957) Über Verwechslungen von Phytolacca acinosa mit Phytolacca americana. Hess. Flor. Briefe 6: 281-282.

Nienaber M.A. & Thieret J.W. (2003) Phytolaccaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America, vol. 4. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford: 3-11.

Nowicke J.W. (1968) Palynotaxonomic study of the Phytolaccaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 55 : 294-364.

Skalický V. (1972) Lícidlo jedlé (Phytolacca esculenta van Houtte), nový zplanĕlý druh kvĕteny ČSSR a NDR a rozšíření druhů Phytolacca esculenta van Houtte a P.americana L. v ČSSR. Preslia 44(4): 364-369.

Terpo A. & Balint K.E. (1985) A `karmazsinbogyo' (Phytolacca) fajok kiwadulasa es a Ph. americana meghonosodasa Magyarorszagon. Bot. Közlem. 72(1-2): 127-139.

Van der Meijden R. (2005) Heukels’ Flora van Nederland (23e druk). Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen: 685 p.

Verloove F. (2002) Ingeburgerde plantensoorten in Vlaanderen. Mededeling van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud n° 20: 227 p.

Verloove F. (2006) Phytolacca esculenta. In: Van Landuyt W., Hoste I., Vanhecke L., Van den Bremt P., Vercruysse W. & De Beer D., Atlas van de flora van Vlaanderen en het Brussels gewest. Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek, Nationale Plantentuin van België en Flo.Wer: 666.

Walter H. (1909) Phytolaccaceae. In: Engler A. (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich 39. Engelmann, Leipzig: 1-154.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith