Secale L.
As currently understood Secale is a small genus of three species (and one hybrid), all confined to the Mediterranean region and adjacent Asia (Frederiksen & Petersen 1998). Previous revisions accepted many more species and numerous infraspecific taxa (see for instance Roshevitz 1947). Secale cereale (rye) is an important crop plant. It is also widely cultivated in Belgium but might decrease lately, possibly partly in favour of xTriticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus (Anonymous 1986), the artificial hybrid between Secale cereale and Triticum aestivum. The latter is more or less intermediate and has a nodding inflorescence and long awned spikelets (see also Baum & Gupta 1990, Barkworth 2007b, Stace 1987). So far, there is no evidence that xTriticosecale has been recorded as an alien in Belgium.

Additional alien: Secale strictum (C. Presl) C. Presl (syn.: Secale montanum Guss.) (Euras., S-Afr., vector unknown).


Anonymous (1986) De triticale teelt. Ministerie van Landbouw, België. Dienst Informatie: 24 p.

Barkworth M.E. (2007a) Secale. In: Barkworth M.E. & al. (eds.), Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 24: 259-260. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford.
Barkworth M.E. (2007b) xTriticosecale. In: Barkworth M.E. & al. (eds.), Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 24: 260. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford.

Baum B.R. & Gupta P.K. (1990) Taxonomic examination of Triticale (x Triticosecale). Canad. J. Bot. 68(9): 1889-1893.

De Bustos A. & Jouve N. (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Secale based on the characterisation of rDNA ITS sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 235(1-4): 147-154.

Chikmawati T., Skovmand B. & Gustafson J.P. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships among Secale species revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Genome 48: 792-801.

Frederiksen S. & Petersen G. (1997) Morphometrical analyses of Secale L. (Triticeae, Poaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 17: 1-14.

Frederiksen S. & Petersen G. (1998) A taxonomic revision of Secale L. (Triticeae, Poaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 18: 399-420.

Hammer K., Skolimowska E. & Knüpffer H. (1987) Vorarbeiten zur monographischen Darstellung von Wildpflanzensortimenten: Secale L. Die Kulturpflanze 35: 135-177.

Jain S.K. (1960) Cytogenetics of rye (Secale spp.). Bibliogr. Genet. 19: 1-86.

Kobylyanskii V.D. (1983) Sistema roda Secale L. Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 79: 24-38.

Löve Á. (1984) Conspectus of the Triticeae. Feddes Repert. 95: 425-521.

Nurnberg U. (1982) Geographische Arten oder Rassen bei Secale L. Gleditschia 9: 11-15.

Rahiminejad M.R., Sahebi J. & Nasser Nakhaie F. (2005) A morphological survey and a taxonomic revision of the genus Secale L. (Triticeae, Poaceae) in Iran. Iranian J. Bot. 11(1): 1-14.

Roshevitz R.J. (1947) Monographie of the genus Secale L. Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyss. Rast. 6: 105-163.

Sencer H.A. & Hawkes J.G. (1980) On the origin of cultivated rye. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 13(4): 299-313.

Stace C.A. (1987) Triticale: a case of nomenclatural mistreatment. Taxon 36: 445-452.

Tsvelev N. (1973) Conspectus specierum tribus Triticeae Dum. familiae Poaceae in flora URSS. Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 10: 19-59.

Tsvelev N.N. (1984) Grasses of the Soviet Union, part 1 and 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam: XVI + 1196 p.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith