Sisyrinchium

Sisyrinchium L.

Sisyrinchium is a genus of ca. 140 species (only 80 according to Goldblatt 2000, Cholewa & Henderson 2002). It is probably limited to the New World and its center of diversity lies in Central and South America. New Zealand species all belong to the related genus Libertia Sprengel (Blanchon & al. 2002). Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. is sometimes claimed as native in Ireland (Stace 2010; as S. bermudiana L.) but this is rather unlikely. Evidently, none is native in Belgium (Lambinon & Verloove 2012) but four species, two of which closely related, have been recorded as aliens or garden escapes. Many additional taxa are known elsewhere in Europe. A detailed overview is provided by Parent (1980, 1987).

Recent molecular studies demonstrated that Sisyrinchium is monophyletic (Karst & Wilson 2012).

Although most species have small and unshowy flowers, several are cultivated for ornament. Alexander (1986) cites 19 species and several additional infraspecific taxa for Europe (see also Jäger & al. 2008).

Sisyrinchium is a complex genus in which the species are not always easily distinguished. Branching pattern of stems is a useful feature but, when immature, plants of branched species appear to be simple-stemmed (Cholewa & Henderson 2002). Some taxonomists have thought differences too subtle and chosen to lump species. Two of the species here concerned, i.e., S. angustifolium and S. montanum, have been considered synonymous by several authors.

1       Flowers bright or pale yellow === 2

         Flowers pale or violet blue === 3

2       Flowers bright yellow. Leaves up to 6 mm wide, green. Plant usually small (rarely exceeding 50 cm), with in a terminal cyme === Sisyrinchium californicum

         Flowers pale yellow. Leaves up to 20 mm wide, more or less glaucous. Plant robust (normally exceeding 50 cm), with flowers in terminal and lateral cymes === S. striatum

3       Stem unbranched, with a single terminal inflorescence. Stem with a single node. Flowers violet-blue, 25-35 mm across. Pedicels erect in fruit. Outer spathe 36-76 mm long === S. montanum

         Stem branched, each branch with a terminal inflorescence. Stem nodes usually 2-3. Flowers pale blue (rarely darker), 15-20 mm across. Pedicels arched to pendent in fruit. Outer spathe 18-38 mm long === S. angustifolium

Literature:


Alexander J.C.M. (1986) Sisyrinchium. In: Walters S.M. & al. (eds.), The European Garden Flora, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 373-376.

Blanchon D.J., Murray B.G. & Braggins J.E. (2002) A taxonomic revision of Libertia (Iridaceae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 40(3): 437-456. [available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0028825x.2002.9512805]

Cholewa A.F. & Henderson D.M. (1984) Biosystematics of Sisyrinchium section Bermudiana (Iridaceae) of the Rocky Mountains. Brittonia 36: 342-363.

Cholewa A.F. & Henderson D.M. (1985) Notes and lectotypification of some type specimens of Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae). Brittonia 37(2): 163-164.

Cholewa A.F. & Henderson D.M. (2002) Sisyrinchium. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America, vol. 26. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford: 351-371. [available online at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=130515]

Goldblatt P. (2000) Phylogeny and classification of the Iridaceae and the relationships of Iris. Ann. Bot. (Rome) N.S. 58: 13-28. [available online at: http://annalidibotanica.uniroma1.it/index.php/Annalidibotanica/article/viewFile/9059/8999]

Goldblatt P., Henrich J.E. & Keating R.C. (1989) Seed morphology of Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Sisyrinchieae) and its allies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76(4): 1109-1117. [available online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/89020#page/1125/mode/1up]

Goldblatt P., Rudall P.J. & Henrich J.E. (1990) The genera of the Sisyrinchium alliance (Iridaceae: Iridoideae): Phylogeny and relationships. Syst. Bot. 15: 497-510. [available online at: https://www.researchgate.net/researcher/2045815212_JE_Henrich]

Henderson D.M. (1972) A Biosystematic Study of the Genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington.

Henderson D.M. (1976) A biosystematic study of Pacific Northwestern blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium, Iridaceae). Brittonia 28: 149-176.

Henrich J.E. & Goldblatt P. (1987) Mesoamerican Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): New Species and Records, and Notes on Typification. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74(4): 903-910. [available online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/87376#page/919/mode/1up]

Henrich J.E. & Goldblatt P. (1994) Sisyrinchium. In: Davidse G., Sousa Sánchez M. & Chater A.O. (eds.), Flora Mesoamericana, vol. 6: Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: 72-74. [available online at: http://www.tropicos.org/name/40001037?projectid=3]

Hill L.M. (1984) A floristic and chromosomal study of Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) in Virginia. Castanea 49(2): 62-68.

Hornberger K.L. (1987) Systematics of the Genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Arkansas.

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Ingram R. (1967) On the identity of the Irish populations of Sisyrinchium. Watsonia 6: 283-289.

Ingram R. (1968) Breeding barriers in some species of Sisyrinchium. New Phytol. 67: 197-204.

Jäger E.J., Ebel F., Hanelt P. & Müller G. (eds.) (2008) Rothmaler Band 5. Exkursionsflora von Deutschland. Krautige Zier- und Nutzpflanzen. Springer Verlag, Berlin: 880 p.

Johnston I.M. (1938) The species of Sisyrinchium in Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 19: 376-401. [available online at: http://biostor.org/cache/pdf/f0/1e/9e/f01e9e859f194ffb57d26433af8c3742.pdf]

Karst L. (2007) Phylogeny, character evolution and biogeography of Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. Claremont, California: Claremont Graduate University.

Karst L. & Wilson C.A. (2012) Phylogeny of the New World genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) based on analyses of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. Syst. Bot. 37(1): 87-95.

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Mabberley D.J. (2008) Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: XVIII + 1021 p.

Mosquin T. (1970) Chromosome numbers and a proposal for classification in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae). Madroño 20: 269-275.

Parent G.H. (1980) Le genre Sisyrinchium L. (Iridaceae) en Europe. Un bilan provisoire. Lejeunia 99: 40 p.

Parent G.H. (1987) Données chorologiques et écologiques nouvelles sur le genre Sisyrinchium L. (Iridaceae) en Europe avec quelques considérations nomenclaturales. Lejeunia 121: 16 p.

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Ravenna P. (2003) Revisional studies in the genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) X. Onira 8(6): 20-24.

Ravenna P. (2003) Revisional studies in the genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): XI. Onira, Bot. Leafl. 8(13): 48-54.

Ravenna P. (2004) Revisional studies in the genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) XII. Onira 10: 1-24.

Ravenna P. (2005) Revisional studies in the genus Sisyrinchium XIV (Iridaceae). Onira, Bot. Leafl. 10(20): 65-70.

Ravenna P. (2007) Revisional studies in the genus Sisyrinchium XV (Iridaceae). Onira Bot. Leafl. 11(3): 5-13.

Rodriguez R. (1984) Bemerkungen zu den chilenischen Arten von Sisyrinchium L. sect. Bermudiana Benth. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 20: 97-109. [available online at: http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/Mitt-Bot-StaatsS-Muenchen_20_0097-0109.pdf]

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Rudall P.J., Kenton A.Y. & Lawrence T.J. (1986) An anatomical and chromosomal investigation of Sisyrinchium and allied genera. Bot. Gaz. 147: 466-477.

Stace C. (2010) New flora of the British Isles, 3th ed.: XXXII + 1232 p. Cambridge University Press.

Ward D.B. (1968) The nomenclature of Sisyrinchium bermudiana and related North America species. Taxon 17: 270-276.

Ward D.B. (2014) Types of E.P. Bicknell's Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae). Phytoneuron 2014-57: 1-12. [available online at: http://www.phytoneuron.net/2014Phytoneuron/57PhytoN-Bicknell.pdf]

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith