Solanum sisymbriifolium

13. Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (syn.: S. balbisii Dun.) (S-Am.) – A rare and ephemeral alien. First recorded in 1880 in Fonds de Forêt. Observed as a wool alien in the Vesdre valley between 1893 and 1947. Regularly recorded in widely scattered locations, especially on dumps in the surroundings of Antwerpen. In the past decades almost excusively associated with grain importation (incl. soybeans) in port areas. Most early records were erroneously ascribed to Solanum sodomeum L. Solanum sisymbriifolium is usually found on waste land near grain mills, under conveyors, by roadverges, on dumps or on demolition sites (often from birdseed). The species is sometimes sown in agricultural fields as a biological control for nematodes (eel worms) (Sanford 2007), but only rarely so if ever in Belgium.

The similar Solanum citrullifolium A. Braun might have been overlooked. It shares the deeply pinnatifid leaves and bluish corolla with S. sisymbriifolium but has unequal anthers like S. rostratum.

A dubious record of Solanum linnaeanum Hepper et Jaeger (Buxant 1970; as S. sodomaeum L.), an introduction with pheasant feed, possibly also belongs here (no voucher specimens seen).

Solanum sisymbriifolium, Merksem (Antwerpen), unloading quay for cereals by the Albertkanaal, August 2009, E. Molenaar. Solanum sisymbriifolium, Mol, municipal dump area, October 2008, R. Barendse.

Solanum_sisymbriifolium_leaf                            Solanum_sisymbriifolium_anthers

Herbarium specimen

Selected literature:

Buxant F. (1970) Le coin du floriste. En glanant ça et la dans nos régions. Bull. Soc. Roy. Natur. Mons et du Borinage 53: 29-33.

Hohla M. (2012) Bromus sitchensis – neu für Österreich, Plantago coronopus - neu für Oberösterreich sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora des Innviertels. Stapfia 97: 180-192.

Sanford M. (2007) Another new crop plant in Britain, Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. BSBI News 104: 47-49.

Schnedler W. (1977) Pflanzen, von denen in der mitteleuropaischen Literatur setten oder gar keine Abbildungen zu finden sind: Folge I. Eruca sativa, Eragrostis tef, Solanum rostratum, S. sisymbrifolium, S. sodomaeum. Gött. Flor. Rundbr. 10(4): 85-91.

Verloove F. & Vandenberghe C. (1994) Nieuwe en interessante graan- en veevoederadventieven voor de Belgische en Noordfranse flora, hoofdzakelijk in 1993. Dumortiera 58-59: 44-59.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith