(incl. Sambucus, Viburnum)
As a result of recent molecular phylogenetic research the familial circumscription of Adoxaceae has considerably changed. As currently accepted it includes Sambucus and Viburnum (Mabberley 2008, APGIII 2009); both were formerly included in Caprifoliaceae or Sambucaceae as a family of its own (see Bolli 1994). This taxonomic viewpoint was recently followed, for instance, by van der Meijden (2005) but remarkably neglected – without obvious reason – by Stace (2010 a,b).
1 Delicate herbaceous perennial, up to 15 cm tall. Leaves once to 3-ternate. Stamens 4-5, all divided nearly to base (and thus appearing 8-10 in number) (native) === Adoxa
Woody or herbaceous, shrub- or tree-like perennials, much taller. Leaves simple or pinnate, never ternate. Stamens 5, all undivided === 2
2 Leaves pinnate === Sambucus
Leaves simple (but sometimes deeply lobed) ===
APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161(2): 105-121. [available online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x/pdf]
Bolli R. (1994) Revision of the genus Sambucus. Diss. Bot. 223: 1-227.
Mabberley D.J. (2008) Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: XVIII + 1021 p.
Stace C. (2010a) New flora of the British Isles, 3th ed.: XXXII + 1232 p. Cambridge University Press.
Stace C.A. (2010b) Classification by molecules: What’s in it for field botanists ? Watsonia 28(2): 103-122. [available online at: http://archive.bsbi.org.uk/Wats28p103.pdf]
Van der Meijden R. (2005) Heukels’ Flora van Nederland (23e druk). Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen: 685 p.